Job: Supported Volunteer Opportunity / Internship Maasai Cultural Tourism

Organization: Future Warriors Project Inc.
Country: United Republic of Tanzania
Closing date: 01 Aug 2016

FUTURE WARRIORS PROJECT is looking for a skilled international volunteer to help lead its Maasai Tourism Capacity Building project in Northern Tanzania. We are an Australian and Tanzanian based not-for-profit that delivers grassroots programs and services to support Maasai communities to face the challenges of the modern world. We are looking for a down-to-earth, innovative and professional person with vision, energy and great teamwork skills to help us implement the project. The role will give you genuine opportunity to influence the capacity of Maasai to successfully participate in the Tanzanian tourism market. Based in Arusha with extensive travel to Maasai communities, you will work with knowledgeable local staff and the FWP CEO to:
  1. visit and analyse the cultural and environmental tourism product opportunities and market needs/concerns of a range of Maasai villages
  2. design and deliver workshops with the project team that will help improve the knowledge and skills of local villages to best deliver cultural and environmental tourism services, and
  3. design and write, in tandem with local villages and the project team, short brochures and itineraries that can be used to market what they have to offer.
We are looking for someone who has a clear vision for how this project could work, who respects and values consultative approaches and the knowledge of the local project team. On a personal level, we are looking for someone who has:

Capacity to commit time to us for at least 6-8 months, commencing in late August/early Sept 16

Travelled extensively and has the ability to use this experience to make suggestions for improving local environmental and cultural tourism offerings

Empathy, good listening skills, and the ability to work effectively with others and across cultural boundaries

Enthusiasm, creativity and capacity to work from a blank slate to develop and deliver outcomes Ability to design and develop brochures and itineraries that can be used by the travel industry

Ability to design, present and deliver training and/or workshops

Project management skills, with the ability to deliver within project timeframes and budget

Good level of fitness with the ability to work in remote locations with limited comforts

Patience and flexibility, with an understanding of the complexities of working in remote settings in developing countries and with traditional minority cultures.

We are open to working with people from a range of professional backgrounds. We would be particularly interested in hearing from you if you can tick a few of the following boxes:
  • experience working with communities to design and deliver projects 
  • experience creating a project vision, and designing and implementing it 
  • experience working or living with the Maasai people, or an Indigenous or minority culture qualifications and/or work experience in the community development, tourism, customer service and/or environmental industries 
  • a love of international travel, nature and culture 
  • experience with marketing, PR and/or writing for various purposes 
  • experience living and working in countries where the people have different culture and language to you.
This is an opportunity to play a key role in a project that will potentially have the influence to change communities. In return for your commitment, we will provide:
  • a $US600 per month cash allowance
  • Transport, accommodation and meal allowances or meals for field trips to villages
  • An officedesktop computer and internet connection
  • Settling in advice, assistance to find accommodation in Arusha and other orientation support.
  • You will be required to provide your own airfares, travel and health insurance, and visa if you are not already based in Tanzania.
How to apply:

Please write to us a letter about your interest in and suitability for the role, and send us your CV to [email protected] For more information about our organisation please or

Tanzania fiscally solid but lacks investments

Can the new government of Tanzania deliver the investments that its economy and people need?

For a country still coming to grips with a contested poll in Zanzibar and the withdrawal of hundreds of millions of dollars of development assistance funds from the US and possibly other Western countries, Tanzania has a surprisingly solid fiscal outlook. The nation’s GDP has increased by about 7% for the last several years, and its current account deficit is narrowing. It continues to attract more foreign direct investment (FDI) than most of its East African neighbors, with FDI rising 14.5% in 2015 and 61.7% in the last six months alone. It is sitting on 25-30 trillion cubic feet of prime natural gas reserves and 54 billion cubic feet of newly discovered helium. The national debt is around $19.6 billion as of February 2016 – quite manageable for the size and trajectory of the economy.

However, Tanzania’s economic reality is not as rosy as these gross economic figures appear, nor are the risks to its economic performance worth glossing over. Poor stewardship of oil and gas resources have plagued many an emerging country, including the real threat of Dutch Disease, which is a strengthening of a nation’s currency due to lucrative commodity exports that often makes other sectors uncompetitive and can easily lead to volatile boom-and-bust cycles. Other obstacles which lawmakers in Dodoma must contend with include the worryingly low levels of student learning in government primary schools, as well as the alarmingly high levels of maternal mortality, as a recent World Bank report indicated.

No substitute for investment

Perhaps the two biggest issues confronting Tanzania’s fiscal and broader economic prospects are the relative lack of FDI in high-growth areas – namely, infrastructure and agriculture. Tanzania’s success marshaling domestic and foreign investment capital has not extended to the infrastructure sphere. The East African giant has gained little FDI when it comes to roads, bridges, railways, ports, airports, electricity, water, and telecoms projects in recent years, which has put more pressure on the public sector to make up the deficit.

There are, of course, exceptions, such as Dangote Cement’s impressive $500 million plant in Mtwara helping to fuel infrastructure growth, which the government likes to continually highlight as an example of fruitful economic diplomacy. But this masks how few steps have been made towards establishing a well-developed equity market for infrastructure investments, and making public-private partnerships in key areas more enticing for investors, both domestic and foreign.
Anemic agriculture

Moreover, Tanzania, like many other African states, suffers from an incredibly unproductive agricultural sector. Agriculture employs a whopping 80% of Tanzanians, provides 85% of exports, and contributes about one-quarter of the country’s GDP. In fact, according to some estimates, Tanzania became self-sufficient in food production this year. At the same time, the agriculture sector only accounts for 11% of GDP growth, only 27% of the country’s arable land is cultivated, and only 1% of suitable areas are irrigated, according to the International Fund for Agricultural Development.

There are no easy solutions here, but the government needs to figure out a way to make the 80% of the cultivated land that is worked by smallholder, hand hoe-reliant farmers more efficient. Some tried-and-tested methods include focusing much more on seasonal loans in rural areas coupled with robust capacity building programs, as well as the broader objective of furthering regional integration in order to open up more markets for Tanzanian agricultural goods.
A way forward

It is worth mentioning that President Magufuli’s administration has made some effort thus far to tackle these two economic impediments. Paying back government arrears to contractors has helped restart some derelict but incredibly important roadway and electrification projects. In addition, the government has not been shy in using its extensive powers of eminent domain to transfer ownership of idle lands often purchased for speculative purposes to farmers and herders (though care must obviously be taken here, lest Tanzania end up like Zimbabwe).

But far, far more needs to be done. Magufuli needs to quickly move from rhetoric to action. Boosting infrastructure and agricultural investment will guard against any future fiscal shocks and help diversify the Tanzanian economy in this crucial period before the domestic commodity boom takes place.

Nunua kitabu cha 3 hadi 9 vya Alfu Lela U Lela upate 1 na 2 BURE

Source: Mkuki na Nyota

The nations with the tallest, shortest men and women as of 2014

The research, published in the journal eLife, has tracked growth trends in 187 countries since 1914.
  • It finds Iranian men and South Korean women have had the biggest spurts, increasing their height by an average of more than 16cm (6in) and 20cm (8in).
  • The smallest men on the planet are to be found in East Timor (160cm; 5ft 3in).
  • The world's smallest women are in Guatemala, a status they also held back in 1914. According to the survey data, a century ago the average Guatemalan 18-year-old female was 140cm (4ft 7in). Today she has still not quite reached 150cm (4ft 11in).
  • East Asia has seen some of the biggest increases. People in Japan, China and South Korea are much taller than they were 100 years ago.
  • "The parts of the world where people haven't got particularly taller over this 100 years of analysis are in South Asia (such as India, Pakistan and Bangladesh) and in sub-Saharan Africa. Here the increase in height is between 1-6cm in those regions," explained co-author James Bentham from Imperial College London. In fact, in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, average heights have actually fallen since the 1970s. Nations like Uganda and Sierra Leone have seen a few centimetres come off the height of the average man.
Some of the variation in height across the globe can be explained by genetics, but the study's authors say our DNA cannot be the dominant factor.

Lead scientist Majid Ezzati, also from Imperial, told BBC News: "About a third of the explanation could be genes, but that doesn't explain the change over time. Genes don't change that fast and they don't vary that much across the world. So changes over time and variations across the world are largely environmental. That's at the whole population level versus for any individual whose genes clearly matter a lot."

Good standards of healthcare, sanitation, and nutrition were the key drivers, he said. Also important is the mother's health and nutrition during pregnancy.

Other research has shown that height is correlated with both positive outcomes and a few negative ones. Tall people tend to have a longer life expectancy, with a reduced risk of heart disease. On the other hand, there is some evidence that they are at greater risk of certain cancers, such as colorectal, postmenopausal breast and ovarian cancers. "One hypothesis is that growth factors may promote mutated cells," said another Imperial co-author, Elio Riboli.

The nations with the tallest men in 2014 (1914 ranking in brackets):
  1. Netherlands (12)
  2. Belgium (33)
  3. Estonia (4)
  4. Latvia (13)
  5. Denmark (9)
  6. Bosnia and Herzegovina (19)
  7. Croatia (22)
  8. Serbia (30)
  9. Iceland (6)
  10. Czech Republic (24)
The nations with the tallest women in 2014 (1914 ranking in brackets):
  1. Latvia (28)
  2. Netherlands (38)
  3. Estonia (16)
  4. Czech Republic (69)
  5. Serbia (93)
  6. Slovakia (26)
  7. Denmark (11)
  8. Lithuania (41)
  9. Belarus (42)
  10. Ukraine (43)
Read more: BBC

Tanzania to implement new petroleum importation law

In East Africa, the Tanzanian energy ministry intends to implement changes to the importation of petroleum products into the country to regulate prices better.

Last week, the deputy permanent secretary in the ministry of energy and minerals, Juliana Pallangyo, made the announcement, stating that the new petroleum importation law will take effect in September this year.

The minister was speaking at the recently held two-day annual Africa LPG summit in Dar es Salaam.

Explaining the new regulation, Pallangyo disclosed that the changes will result in government adopting the bulk procurement system, which will be undertaken by the Petroleum and Bulk Procurement Agency (PBPA).

PBPA was founded in 2013 by the government with a mission to ease importation of petroleum products and promote efficiency in the sector.

New petroleum importation law – facilitates supply

According to the media, Pallangyo highlighted that with the new petroleum importation law it would be simpler to regulate LPG prices while guaranteeing reliable supply in the country.

The minister said: “The government is looking forward to change the system effectively [in] September this year...under the bulk procurement system; it will be easier for local dealers to get LPG from a reliable supplier.”

Pallangyo said the new system will allow government to control LPG prices to ensure more Tanzanians choose to use of LPG instead of firewood and charcoal, which is reported still remains the primary source of energy among majority of citizens.
Inadequate modern energy supply

Pallangyo noted that the increased use of charcoal, firewood and kerosene are due to inadequate supply of modern energy in most of Sub-Saharan countries, including Tanzania.

“Sub-Sahara and developing Asia account for a whopping 95% of the world's 1.3 billion people without clean cooking fuel," she stated.

Meanwhile, she disclosed that the country has witnessed a steady increase of supply and consumption, where LPG is concerned.

Pallangyo noted that over the past five years, the average import volume has increased from 2,225 metric tonnes between 2010 and 2011 to 5,762 metric tonnes in 2014/2015.

Taarifa ya habari ChannelTEN Julai 26, 2016

Taarifa ya Mkuu wa Mkoa kuhusu Mradi wa Machinga Complex


1.0 Utangulizi

Mnamo tarehe 19 Aprili, 2016 ofisi yangu ya mkuu wa mkoa wa Dar es Salaam ilipokea barua ya agizo la waziri wa nchi TAMISEMI juu ya kusimamia uendeshaji wa mradi wa Machinga Complex. Ambapo katika kutekeleza agizo hilo nilichukua hatua ya kwanza na ya muhimu ya kuupitia mkataba wote wa mradi huu ikiwa ni pamoja na kufanya tathmini ya haki na wajibu wa pande mbili zilizohusika kwa maana ya Halmashauri ya Jiji na Shirika la Taifa la Hifadhi ya Jamii (NSSF).

Kimsingi, tathmini yangu ya mkataba ililenga kubainisha na kujiridhisha juu ya mambo sita yafuatayo; aina ya jengo lililotarajiwa kujengwa, usimamizi wa fedha za mkopo, usimamizi wa ujenzi wa mradi, gharama za mradi, utaratibu wa urejeshaji wa deni na kiwango cha riba kilichoainishwa. Ikukumbukwe tu kwamba, wakati halmashauri ya jiji ikikabidhiwa mradi siku ya kwanza ilikuwa tayari inadaiwa kiasi cha bilioni 19.7 huku mpaka Machi mwaka huu deni lilishafikia kiasi cha bilioni 38 za kitanzania, kutokea kwenye mkopo wa bilioni 12.7

2.0 Uchunguzi

Baada ya kupitia kwa umakini mkataba mzima na kukagua mradi wenyewe, zoezi ambalo lilihusisha kulinganisha kati ya kilichofanyika baada ya mradi kukamilika na taarifa ya upembuzi yakinifu (feasibility study) uliofanyika kabla ya kuanza utekelezaji wa mradi nimebaini yafuatayo;-

2.1 Ukubwa halisi wa jengo

Nimebaini kwamba majengo ya sasa ya machinga complex hayakujengwa kwa ukubwa sawa na ule ambao Halmashauri ya Jiji na Shirika la Taifa la Hifadhi ya Jamii (NSSF) walikubaliana kwenye mkataba na kupitia kifungu cha 1.1 cha barua ya makabidhiano kinachoeleza kwamba jengo lililokabidhiwa lina sehemu yenye ghorofa 5 na ghorofa 6 ili liweze kumudu idadi ya machinga wasiopungua 10,000 wakati hali halisi baada ya kutembelea jengo hilo ni kwamba jengo lina ghorofa 4 zinazobeba machinga 4,000 tu. Kwahiyo, pamoja na kwamba barua ya makabidhiano ilisainiwa na pande zote mbili licha ya ukweli kuwa maelezo ya jengo yalikuwa tofauti na jengo lenyewe.

2.2 Usimamizi wa fedha za Mkopo

Kwenye usimamizi wa fedha za Mkopo, Halmashauri ya Jiji la Dar es Salaam ambaye ni mkopaji hakuhusika na usimamizi wa fedha za mkopo, hivyo mkopeshaji hakuwa na udhibitisho wa gharama halisi, jambo ambalo si tu limefanya mkopaji kutojua gharama halisi za jengo bali pia kulipokea likiwa limechelewa na likiwa halina ukubwa ulioelezwa kwenye mkataba. Kimsingi, haya yote yanazaliwa na maelekezo ya kifungu namba 4.1 kinachoeleza kwamba, mkopeshaji kusimamia mradi kuanzia hatua ya usanifu hadi kukamilika kwake ikiwa ni pamoja na kufanya malipo moja kwa moja kwa mkandarasi na mshauri wa mradi, kwa maneno mengine pia ni kwamba kifungu hiki kinakinzana na vifungu namba 2.1, 2.2, 10.1 na 11.1 vya mkataba huohuo ambavyo vinaelekeza kwamba mkopeshaji (NSSF) atatakiwa kutoa fedha kwa mkopaji (Halmashauri ya Jiji) kwa ajili ya kugharamia mradi pekee na kuusimamia kama ulivyokubalika kwenye mkataba.

2.3 Kuhusu gharama za mradi

Nimebaini kuwa fedha za mkopo ziliongezeka toka shilingi bilioni 12.14 za kwenye mkataba na kufikia bilioni 12.7 ikiwa ni nyongeza ya shilingi milioni 560, nyongeza ambayo ilifanyika bila makubaliano yoyote kati ya mkopeshaji na mkopaji, hali ambayo haimtendei haki mkopaji. Kwa faida tu ya wanadar es salaam na watanzania wenzangu ni kwamba, halmashauri ya jiji ilitiliana saini ya makubaliano na shirika la hifadhi ya jamii (NSSF) ya mkataba ambao unalenga kuipatia halmashauri ya jiji mkopo wa bilioni 10 kwa ajili ya kutekeleza mradi huu ingawa baada ya muda kidogo mkopeshaji (NSSF) alisema kuwa bilioni 10 na hivyo kufanya marekebisho ya mkataba na kuongeza mkopo wa bilioni 2.14

2.4 Urejeshaji wa deni

Suala la urejeshaji wa mkopo unazua utata pale mkataba unapoainisha kuwa, mkopaji ataanza kulipa marejesho ya deni kuanzia tarehe 31 Desemba, 2008 tarehe ambayo mradi ulikuwa unatarajiwa kuwa tayari umeanza lakini mkopeshaji (NSSF) alikuwa hajamaliza ujenzi, na cha ajabu mkopaji (Halmashauri ya Jiji) alitakiwa kuanza kulipa deni hata kabla ya muda wa grace period kuisha wakati jengo likiwa bado lipo mikononi mwa mkopeshaji ambaye alijitwisha jukumu la ujenzi huku akiwa bado akang’ang’ania kulipwa riba.

mara tu tarehe hiyo ilipofika hata kama mpokeshaji mwenyewe alikuwa bado hajakamilisha ujenzi huku akidai pesa ya riba.

Uwezo wa Mradi

Uwezo wa jengo hilo lililopo hata kama litafanya kazi kwa uwezo wake wote kwa maana ya kujaza nafasi zote zilizopo ni kasi cha sh124,796,666.666 kwa mwezi ambazo ni sawa na kiasi cha sh1,497,560,000 kwa mwaka. Pungufu ya 60% ya lengo la Mradi kama ilivyokuwa kwenye upembuzi yakinifu

3.0 Mapendekezo

3.1 Baada ya uchunguzi huu ulionifanya kuamini mambo makubwa matano niliyoyaainisha hapo chini na ambayo yameniongoza kutoa mapendekezo ya hatua za kuchukua;-
  • Deni halilipiki – ukweli ni kwamba, ukizingatia kiasi cha pesa kinachodaiwa kutoka kwa halmashauri ya Jiji ambacho mpaka sasa ni zaidi ya bilioni 38 utagundua kuwa, halmashauri haiwezi kulipa deni hilo. Ikilinganishwa na uwezo wa jengo hilo deni hili litalipwa baada ya miaka isiyopungua 24 
  • Mkataba wote huu ni wa hovyo na haukupaswa kusainiwa hata kidogo.
  • Kitendo cha kusaini mkataba huu ni hakika na bayana kuwa rushwa ilitumika pande zote mbili, kwa maana haiwezekani ukaacha taaluma yako kwa kiwango hicho cha kutoona udhaifu huu wa wazi wa mkataba huu kama hujapofushwa macho na rushwa.
  • Mkataba huu hauna tija kwa upande wowote ule: sio NSSF kwasababu halmashauri ya Jiji hawana uwezo wa kulipa deni, wala sio kwa Jiji lenyewe kwani halina uwezo wa kutekeleza mkataba kwa kufanya malipo yanayotakiwa na hauna faida vilevile kwa machinga kwa sababu gharama ya kupanga ni kubwa. 
3.2 Mapendekezo
  1. Kuvunjwa kwa mkataba na NSSF kuchukua eneo lao, kwa makubalino ya kwamba, Halmashauri ya Jiji walipwe kodi ya ardhi jambo ambalo linaweza kufanyika kwa urahisi kupitia NSSF na halmashauri ya Jiji kumiliki hisa kwa pamoja. 

  2. Au NSSF wakabidhi jengo kwa halmashauri ya Jiji, lakini wakae na kukubaliana upya na hivyo kuandika mkataba tofauti na ule wa mwanzo. 

  3. Mwisho, wahusika wote wa pande zote mbili wachukuliwe hatua kwani hatuwezi kutumia fedha za mifuko za hifadhi ya jamii ambazo ni fedha za wanyonge wa taifa hili kwa faida ya wachache waliotanguliza ubinafsi,. 
Imetolewa na:

Paul Makonda
Mkuu wa Mkoa – Dar es Salaam.

Michael Jordan's statement on African-Americans shootings and police officers targeting

The following letter is a cross-post from TheUndefeated

“As a proud American, a father who lost his own dad in a senseless act of violence, and a black man, I have been deeply troubled by the deaths of African-Americans at the hands of law enforcement and angered by the cowardly and hateful targeting and killing of police officers. I grieve with the families who have lost loved ones, as I know their pain all too well.

“I was raised by parents who taught me to love and respect people regardless of their race or background, so I am saddened and frustrated by the divisive rhetoric and racial tensions that seem to be getting worse as of late. I know this country is better than that, and I can no longer stay silent. We need to find solutions that ensure people of color receive fair and equal treatment AND that police officers – who put their lives on the line every day to protect us all – are respected and supported.

“Over the past three decades I have seen up close the dedication of the law enforcement officers who protect me and my family. I have the greatest respect for their sacrifice and service. I also recognize that for many people of color their experiences with law enforcement have been different than mine. I have decided to speak out in the hope that we can come together as Americans, and through peaceful dialogue and education, achieve constructive change.

“To support that effort, I am making contributions of $1 million each to two organizations, the International Association of Chiefs of Police’s newly established Institute for Community-Police Relations and the NAACP Legal Defense Fund. The Institute for Community-Police Relations’ policy and oversight work is focused on building trust and promoting best practices in community policing. My donation to the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, the nation’s oldest civil rights law organization, will support its ongoing work in support of reforms that will build trust and respect between communities and law enforcement. Although I know these contributions alone are not enough to solve the problem, I hope the resources will help both organizations make a positive difference.

“We are privileged to live in the world’s greatest country – a country that has provided my family and me the greatest of opportunities. The problems we face didn’t happen overnight and they won’t be solved tomorrow, but if we all work together, we can foster greater understanding, positive change and create a more peaceful world for ourselves, our children, our families and our communities.”

Serikali yatenga bilioni 1.6/= za mfumo wa kieletroniki wa kusajili wakazi

Katibu Mkuu Ofisi ya Rais – TAMISEMI, Injinia Mussa Iyombe akiongea na wanahabari wakati wa kupokea maendeleo ya mfumo wa kuboresha upatikanaji wa taarifa sahihi katika serikali za mitaa. Hafla hiyo imenyika jijini Dar es Salaam. (Picha zote na Benjamin Sawe- Maelezo)
Na Benjamin Sawe, Maelezo
Dar es Salaam.

SERIKALI imetenga Jumla ya shilingi bilioni 1.6 kupitia ofisi ya Taifa ya Takwimu na wafadhili wametoa shilingi bilioni 1.4 kwa ajili ya uanzishwaji wa mfumo wa kielekroniki wa kusajili wakazi Tanzania

Hayo yamesemwa na Katibu Mkuu Ofisi ya Rais- TAMISEMI Injinia Mussa Iyombe wakati wa kupokea maendeleo ya mfumo wa kuboresha upatikanaji wa taarifa sahihi katika serikali za mitaa.

Injinia Iyombe alisema mfumo huo unalenga kuwa na kanzi data ya watu wote nchini kiumri, uraia, jinsia, hali ya ulemavu, hali ya elimu, shughuli za kiuchumi, uhamaji na uhamiaji ikiwa ni pamoja ikiwa na vizazi na vifo.

“Taarifa hizi zitaisaidia serikali na wadau wengine kujibu maswali ambayo wengine tumekuwa tukijiuliza kila siku”.Alsema Injini Iyombe.

Alisema katika kutekeleza malengo Endelevu ya Maendeleo ya Mwaka 2030 serikal;I haina budi kuhakikisha wananchi wanaandikishwa katika rejesta ya wakazi ili iweze kuwafahamu mahitaji yake.

Aliongezea kuwa mfumo huo utasaidia upatikanaji wa idadi kamili ya wanafunzi waliopo mashuleni na kiasi gani cha fedha kinachotitajika kupelekwa shuleni, upatikanaji wa hali halisi ya uandikishaji wa watoto katika shule za msingi, mahudhurio shuleni na idadi ya walimu na taarifa nyingine.

Alisema kwa upande wa TAMISEMI mfumo huo utasaidia kuwagundua wazazi ambao hawana nia nzuri ya kuwapeleka watoto kuandikishwa kupitia katika kata zao kwa kutumia Global Positioning System za kaya zao katika ramani.

Akielezea faida za mfumo huo Injinia Iyombe alisema utaiwezesha serikali kufahamu idadi kamili ya watu wake kiumri na kijinsia kwa kuwa kazi hiyo itakuwa endelevu na itafanyiwa kazi kila siku na maafisa watendaji wa vijiji na mitaa kwa Tanzania nzima kwa kutumia teknolojia ya simu.

Aidha mfumo huo utaipa fursa Ofisi ya Takwimu ya kuwa na takwimu bora ambazo zitaipunguzia gharama ya kufanya tafiti za kila baada ya miaka mitatu, mitano hata kumi ikiwa ni pamoja na kupunguza maswali mengi ambayo huulizwa wakati wa sensa wa watu na makazi ambayo itafanyika tena hapa nchini mwaka 2022.